Known names: Sensors on electric double layer, Bobrow' detector, sensors on deeply polarized electrodes
Development (year): 1991, 2012
Production: in preparation fot production by Cybertronica Research, there exist currently several experimental devices
Known names of developers: discovery of effect - A.V.Bobrov, further development of sensors - S.Kernbach
Main sensing element: changing of dielectric properties of the Gouy-Chapman layer, spatial polarization of water dipoles under the influence of "high-penetrating" emission
 AV Bobrov, Reaction of electrical double layers on torsion field, VINITI Dep number 1055-V97, Moscow, 1997 (rus)
 S. Kernbach. Replication Attempt: Measuring Water Conductivity with Polarized Electrodes, Journal of Scientifi c Exploration, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 69-105, 2013 (engl)
The electric double layer (EDL) appears on the surface of an object placed into a liquid. Electrokinetic phenomena are described by the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Corresponding to this model, EDL can be represented by two layers: internal Helmholtz (absorbtion) layer and outer Gouy-Chapman (diffuse) layer. In a number of works, dielectric behavior and properties of the Gouy-Chapman layer are investigated. In particular, the dielectric response of this layer depends among other factors on the temperature, ionic concentration and spatial polarization of water dipoles. As proposed in the original works of A.V.Bobrov, and confirmed by a large number of different experiments, some non-biological as well as biological objects are capable of influencing a spatial polarization of dipoles and thus change dielectric properties of the Gouy-Chapman layer. It is assumed that the Gouy-Chapman layer is the main factor in the interaction between the polarized electrodes and the high-penetrating emission. Despite the principles of such an interation are not undoubtedly identified at the moment, the produced effects appeared in changing an electric current flowing through the water-electrode system and thus can be experimentally measured.
Sensors are containers made of glass or stainless steel with several platinum electrodes immersed in bi-distilled water.
Experimental models of sensors have the following form.
Structure of sensors is shown in the figure below
A typical result is shown below and is characterized by several parameters, such as the reaction time t, the relative variation of the current I, etc.
Some further graphs are shown below.
Conclusion. Sensors based on deeply-polarized electrodes are ones of the most sensitive instruments, allowing to detect a "high-penetrating" emission. For instance, with these sensors a singal transmission over the distance of 13000km has been performed.
 A. Bobrov, Reaction of electrical double layers on torsion field, VINITI Dep number 1055-V97, Moscow, 1997
 S. Kernbach. Replication Attempt: Measuring Water Conductivity with Polarized Electrodes, Journal of Scientifi c Exploration, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 69-105, 2013
 S.Kernbach, V.Zamsha, Yu.Kravchenko. Long-range and ultra long-instrument interaction, Journal of Unconventional Science, 1 (1), 24-42, 2013
 S. Kernbach, Investigation of high-penetration emission of LED and laser light, part 1, Nano- and Micro-system Technology, 6, 38-46, 2013
 S. Kernbach, Investigation of hig-penetration emission of LED and laser light, part 2, Nano- and Micro-system Technology, 7, 28-38, 2013